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Owlthorpe Grasslands total species list or 2010 and 2011 in alphabetical order for reference.

52 species are in this list.

Species accounts are from RECORDER 3.3 software, with some additional information.

 

Abax parallelepipedus a ground beetle Common

 

18-22mm long very broad dull black ground beetle. Lives under stones, loose

bark, leaf litter etc, mostly in woodland but also in gardens and

occasionally in other moist shady habitats. Common throughout Britain in

suitable localities.

 

Acanthosoma haemorrhoidale Hawthorn Shieldbug Common

 

A common shieldbug in the south of England , becoming rarer in the north.

Feeds on hawthorn, and occasionally on other fruiting shrubs and trees.

 

Acronicta psi Grey Dagger Common

 

The Grey Dagger is well distributed and often common in woodland, commons,

gardens and heathland throughout England and Wales , widespread but less

frequent over much of mainland Scotland to Sutherland and Caithness and in

Ireland . There are two generations in southern England but only one from the

midlands northwards with moths occurring from May until September and

sometimes even later. The eggs overwinter and the caterpillars feed

polyphagously on deciduous trees and shrubs including birch, oak, lime, elm,

rowan, hawthorn, blackthorn and have been recorded on bracken, from June to

October. They pupate in silken cocoons, usually behind a flake of bark but

sometimes in rotten wood or earth.

 

Adalia bipunctata Two-spot Ladybird Common

 

4-5.5mm long very variable coloured ladybird. Commonest form red with 2 black

spots. Most habitats. Often vast migrations from the continent. Feeds on

aphids. Very common.

 

Aeshna grandis Brown Hawker Common

 

A large red-brown hawker dragonfly with strongly yellow tinted wings. Breeds

in lakes, ponds, canals and slow moving rivers and shows a preference for

open ground rather than woods. Often abundant in urban areas within its range

and a frequent visitor to garden ponds. A widspread and frequent species

throughout the lowlands of the south-east and midlands of England north to

Lancashire and Yorkshire, but scarce further north and absent from Devon and

Cornwall . In Wales it is restricted to the borders with Cheshire and the

Montgomery Canal . There is a single, 19th century Scottish record from

Dumfries-shire. In Europe it is widespread from France northwards to quite

high latitudes in Scandinavia , but absent from much of the Mediterranaean

area. It ranges eastwards to Siberia .

 

Aeshna mixta Migrant Hawker Local UK

 

A medium sized hawker dragonfly which breeds in ponds and lakes with well

vegetated margins. It shows a preference for more mature, flooded sand,

gravel and clay pits. It may also breed in canals, ditches and, occasionally,

sluggish rivers and streams and can toerate mildly brackish conditions. It

generally avoids acidic water bodies. In Britain it breeds from Cornwall and

south Wales to the Humber It has increased its range and abundance in recent

years and is spreading north and west. . The population may be increased in

some years by massive influxes from the continent in late summer. In Europe

it is common in south and central areas.Sheffield RDB

 

Agapanthia villosoviridescens a longhorn beetle Local UK

 

12-18mm long spectacular longhorn beetle, mottled black and yellow to give a

greenish appearance. Conspicuously banded antennae. Southern and eastern in

distribution and has apparently spread northwards in recent years. Formerly

regarded as very rare. Larvae develop in the stems of hogweed, wild parsnip

and possibly other species. Adults often on flowers.

 

Agapeta hamana a micro-moth Common

 

Yellow-coloured grass moth in lowland rough grassy places. Larva feeds on

thistle roots.

 

Aglais urticae Small Tortoiseshell Common

 

A widespread and common butterfly, sometimes abundant throughout Britain , and

is first seen in early spring after having hibernated from the previous

autumn in houses, sheds and outbuildings. It flies until May and its

offspring appear in late June and July and producing the autumn brood which

flies from August to October and then hibernates. The eggs are laid in untidy

batches beneath the leaves of stinging nettle and the young caterpillar spins

a protective communal silken web and feeds on surrounding leaves. New webs

are formed as areas are defoliated and are also used for basking in the

sunshine and roosting. When almost fully grown it feeds seperately before

suspending from a stem or nearby fence to pupate, though it is often

parasitised by tachinid flies.

 

Agriotes acuminatus a click beetle Common

 

A common click beetle.

 

Agrochola circellaris Brick Common

 

A widespread and generally common moth throughout Britain , though rarer in

Ireland , and chiefly a woodland moth. It flies from September to November,

emerging earlier in northern Scotland , but cannot survive the winter as an

adult. The eggs are laid in the buds of deciduous trees where they overwinter

and the caterpillars feed in these at first, later on the flowers and leaves.

Wych elm and poplars are most common. They rest for several weeks in

underground cocoons before pupating.

 

Agrotis exclamationis Heart and Dart Common

 

The Heart and Dart is generally distributed and very common in England and

Wales , but more thinly spread in Scotland and Ireland . Its caterpillars feed

on a wide variety of wild and cultivated plants from late summer and

overwinter fully grown in earthen cocoons. After hibernation in spring they

remain in the cocoons and pupate, producing a single generation of moths from

late May to Late July. Some caterpillars pupate in late summer and produce a

small second brood in September.

 

Altica lythri a leaf beetle Common

 

5mm long bright metallic blue flea beetle feeding on Epilobium sp and other

members of the Onagraceae, in particular Circaea lutetiana. Widely

distributed and generally common.

 

Altica palustris a leaf beetle Common

 

<No species account available>

 

Amblyteles armatorius an ichneumon wasp Common

 

Large black and yellow ichneumon. Very common.

 

Anomoia purmunda a gall fly Local UK

 

A picture-winged fly whose larvae develop in the fruits of hawthorn

Crataegus and sometimes other Rosaceae and Berberis. Local but widespread

in South-east England , East Anglia , Yorkshire and the Midlands . Scarce

elsewhere, but recorded from South Wales , Inverness , Devon and Hereford . Over

40 localities in Sorby area

 

Anthocharis cardamines Orange Tip Common

 

A common butterfly throughout much of Britain except northern Scotland . It

has been in decline in northern England since the mid-1960's but this has now

reversed and the butterfly is expanding beyond its previous range and is now

more widespread than previously. Only the male has orange tips to the

forewings, in the female the corresponding area is greenish-grey. It favours

damp meadows and woodland fringes where the eggs are laid on crucifers,

particularly hedge mustard, cuckoo flower, charlock and honesty. The

caterpillar feeds on these throughout the summer, eating the seed pods rather

than the foliage, and it is a noted cannibal. It overwinters as a triangular

pupa which is attached to a stem by silk threads and a girdle round the

centre to hold it in position. There is usually a single brood which flies

from late April until June, although a second brood sometimes occurs in

southern England .

 

Anthocoris nemoralis a flower bug or bloodsucking b Common

 

Very common and widely distributed: a predator, generally found on trees and

shrubs. No particular habitat associations.

 

Anthocoris nemorum Common Flower Bug Common

 

Very common and widely distributed predatory bug in Britain . It is generally

found on low vegetation, though it has no particular habitat associations.

The adults hibernate under bark and amongst leaf litter, moving to a variety

of plants, including sallows, in March or April. It is a predator which feeds

on aphids, psyllids and other small invertebrates and occasionally on leaves.

The white eggs are laid in leaves and hatch in late May or early June. There

is one generation a year in northern Britain and two in the south, with

adults found from June to September, according to area. Pairing occurs in

autumn and most males die before the onset of winter, so it is mostly

fertilized females which overwinter.

 

Aphantopus hyperantus Ringlet Common

 

Found in damp sheltered lanes and woodland rides and in the northerly and

westerly parts of its distribution on open areas of damp grassland. The larva

feeds on a variety of grasses. Throughout Britain , though absent in northern

Scotland , apparently very scarce in the Midlands , north-west and north-east

England , around London and in south-east Scotland . Localised in Sheffield SRDB

 

Aphrophora alni a froghopper Common

 

A large brown froghopper with variable white markings. Adults are found on a

wide range of trees and shrubs and low vegetation throughout the summer.

Nymphs feed in froth-lumps on a wide range of plants, usually very close to

the ground. Widely distributed and generally common throughout Britain .

 

Apion frumentarium a seed weevil Common

 

3mm long blood red 'seed' weevil. Larvae develop in stem mines in the large

species of Rumex (R. obtusifolius, R.crispus, R.hydrolapathi etc).

 

Apis mellifera Honey Bee Common

 

The common honey bee. It is a domesticated species, although occasional

colonies may persist in the wild for a few years in hollow trees, etc. Under

an ancient law it is classed as livestock, but the owner is the person on

whose property the colony has settled, thus it is not illegal to eradicate a

colony, merely unethical.

 

Araneus diadematus Garden Orb-web Spider Common

 

A widespread and very common large orb-web spider with a prominent cross of

pale spots on the abdomen. It makes large (up to 40cm diameter) webs

stretched between bushes, trees and posts in gardens and on woodland edges.

When disturbed it vigourously oscillates itself and the web, by strong

rythmical contractions of its legs and, if severely disturbed, it drops from

the web on a silk thread and, after lying still for a few minutes, climbs

back to its original position. The young spider has a globular yellow abdomen

with a dark patch and, when newly hatched, it collects together in a

closely-packed masses of spiderlings. If disturbed these scatter wildly but

soon reassemble when the 'danger' is passed. After the first moult they

seperate and become solitary.

 

Araneus quadratus an orb-weaver spider Common

 

A large web-spinning spider found on low bushes, heather and grass. Adults

are found in late summer and autumn. Widespread and common.

 

Arge cyanocrocea a sawfly Local UK

 

<No species account available>

 

Arion ater Great Black Slug Common

 

Large slug, to 20 cm extended length, and very variable in colour. Commonly

black, red, orange or grey or black with red fringe. Common in most habitats,

including bogs and high moorland. A garden pest. Taxonomy in a mess and most

big black Arion specimens are usually referred to this species.

Confirmation of identification is possible only with dissection.

 

Arion ater rufus Red slug Common

 

used here to record Arion ater agg. slugs with a red or pale body and orange

frill.

 

Arion subfuscus Dusky Slug Common

 

A dark brown medium-sized slug commonly found in a variety of habitats

throughout Britain , though apparently scarce in East Anglia .

 

Athous haemorrhoidalis Common Brown Click Beetle Common

 

A medium-size (10-15mm) brown and black click beetle which occurs in all type

of grassland, including woodland rides. The larvae are common wireworm pests

which feed at grass roots. They live in loams and sands which are not too dry

and may go deep into the soil.

 

Autographa gamma Silver Y Common

 

Mainly a migrant moth, most abundant in southern and eastern England but,

reaching all the British Isles where it breeds to produce an autumn

generation. Adults can be found from late January, when large swarms have

been known from North Africa , but May is more typical. They sometimes return

south for the winter but, although overwintering moths have also been

recorded, the early stages cannot survive the cold and so die with the first

frosts. The moths mostly feed during the day and at dusk. The caterpillars

feed on low growing plants and can sometimes be a pest on cultivated crops

and garden plants, especially kale and peas. Pupation takes place in loose

cocoons among leaves.

 

Beris geniculata a soldier fly Common

 

A small, shining, green-black soldier fly which is widespread and common,

perhaps more abundant in the north, and typically found around hedges, scrub

or woodland edge. The larva is terrestrial, living in rotting vegetable

matter. The flight period is from June until October and the adult is shining

greenish-black, though the female is difficult to separate from the equally

common B. chalybata, although that species usually flies earlier in the

year.

 

Beris vallata a soldier fly Common

 

Small fly with a shiny black thorax and yellow abdomen. Adults are usually

found in grassy places and the larvae are probably in rotting litter at the

soil surface. Widespread and common.

 

Bibio leucopterus a St. Mark's fly Unknown

 

A small St Marks Fly

 

Bibio marci St Marks Fly Common

 

Large black fly found swarming in the lee of bushes in May and June. Larvae

feed on the roots of grasses and are occasionally cereal pests. Widespread

and common.

 

Biston betularia Peppered Moth Common

 

A moth that is found in a wide variety of habitats. Larvae on a wide variety

of trees and plants. Common and generally distributed in England and Wales ,

widespread but local in mainland Scotland and the inner Hebrides.

 

Boettgerilla pallens Worm Slug Naturalised

 

A pale grey elongate slug which lives mainly underground. First recorded in

Britain in 1972 but already quite widespread and likely to become more so.

 

Bombus hortorum Small Garden Bumble Bee Common

 

A large black, white and yellow bumble bee, abundant in most parts of Britain

and commonly found in gardens. Usually nests on or just under the ground.

 

Bombus hypnorum European Bumblebee Naturalised

 

A bumblebee first recorded in GB in 2001, now widespread in southern England

and continuing to spread. Open woodlands and gardens. New to Sheffield only in 2008

 

Bombus lapidarius Large Red Tailed Bumble Bee Common

 

A common bumblebee of gardens and hedgerows. It is mainly black with ared

tail and the male has a broad yellow collar. The nests are often under

stones. Only the young fertilized queen survives the winter, having

hibernated in a protected place such as in a hole or under moss. She emerges

in spring and starts up her own colony or may attempt to usurp the queen of

an existing colony and take it over. Such attempts end in the death of one or

both queens. She makes pots of wax and pollen into which the first eggs are

laid and when these hatch provides them with honey whilst making storage

cells for honey and more cells for further eggs. After about three weeks the

first infertile females (workers) emerge and take over the nectar and pollen

gathering and cell building, while the queen concentrates on egg laying. The

larva is reared on pollen and nectar, which are carried on large pollen sacs

on the back legs and in the stomach respectively. Early spring workers are

often much smaller than those oflater broods when there are more copious

levels of food available. The male, which is recognisable by his longer

antennae, appear in summer and towards the end of summer male and female

bumblebees fly out and mate. The male is not allowed to re-enter the nest

after mating and soon dies. The fertilized queen starts searching for a safe

place to hibernate and the workers and old queen die with the first frosts or

spell of cold weather.

 

Bombus lucorum White-tailed Bumble Bee Common

 

A common black, white and yellow bumblebee found in gardens and hedgerows. It

often breeds in old vole nests. Only the young fertilized queen survives the

winter, having hibernated in a protected place such as in a hole or under

moss. She emerges in spring and starts up her own colony, making pots of wax

and pollen into which the first eggs are laid. When these hatch the queen

provides them with honey whilst making storage cells for honey and more cells

for further eggs. After about three weeks the first infertile females

(workers) emerge and take over the nectar and pollen gathering and cell

building, while the queen concentrates on egg laying. Eventually both female

and male bees are produced as well as more workers and a large colony will

support several hundred bees. Towards the end of summer male and female

bumblebees fly out and mate. The male is not allowed to re-enter the nest

after mating and soon dies. The fertilized queen starts searching for a safe

place to hibernate and the workers and old queen die with the first frosts or

spell of cold weather.

 

Bombus pascuorum Common Carder Bee Common

 

Widely distributed, common and often abundant bumblebee. The adult is a

small, largely tawny insect with variable amounts of black. There are two

forms occurring in the north and south, which overlap and interbreed in

northern England and north Wales . On the continent it is extremely variable,

ranging from dark forms in the north to foxy red, bright forms in southern

Europe . The coat is thin and rather 'scruffy' looking. It is a

surface-nesting bumblebee which constructs its nest in cavities such as old

mouse runs and in tangles of vegetation. Its colonies are few in numbers of

individuals. Only the young fertilized queen survives the winter, having

hibernated in a protected place such as in a hole or under moss. She emerges

in spring and starts up her own colony or may attempt to usurp the queen of

an existing colony and take it over. Such attempts end in the death of one or

both queens. She makes pots of wax and pollen into which the first eggs are

laid and when these hatch provides them with honey whilst making storage

cells for honey and more cells for further eggs. After about three weeks the

first infertile females (workers) emerge and take over the nectar and pollen

gathering and cell building, while the queen concentrates on egg laying. The

larva is reared on pollen and nectar, which are carried on large pollen sacs

on the back legs and in the stomach respectively. Early spring workers are

often much smaller than those oflater broods when there are more copious

levels of food available. The male, which is recognisable by his longer

antennae, appear in summer and towards the end of summer male and female

bumblebees fly out and mate. The male is not allowed to re-enter the nest

after mating and soon dies. The fertilized queen starts searching for a safe

place to hibernate and the workers and old queen die with the first frosts or

spell of cold weather, though it is one of the latest surviving bees at the

end of autumn.

 

Bombus pratorum Early Bumble Bee Common

 

A rather small black and yellow bumblebee with a red tail. On the wing quite

early in the year and may be finished by the end of July. Sometimes there is

a second brood later in the summer. The nest is often well above ground, in

bird nests or nest boxes for example. Widely distributed and common.

 

Bombus terrestris Buff-tailed Bumble Bee Common

 

One of our commonest larger bumblebees and widespread and common north to the

central lowlands of Scotland . It is black and golden in colour with a white

or buff tail and nests below ground. Only the young fertilized queen survives

the winter, having hibernated in a protected place such as in a hole or under

moss. She emerges in spring and starts up her own colony or may attempt to

usurp the queen of an existing colony and take it over. Such attempts end in

the death of one or both queens. She makes pots of wax and pollen into which

the first eggs are laid and when these hatch provides them with honey whilst

making storage cells for honey and more cells for further eggs. After about

three weeks the first infertile females (workers) emerge and take over the

nectar and pollen gathering and cell building, while the queen concentrates

on egg laying. The larva is reared on pollen and nectar, which are carried on

large pollen sacs on the back legs and in the stomach respectively. Early

spring workers are often much smaller than those of later broods when there

are more copious levels of food available. The male, which is recognisable by

his longer antennae, appear in summer and towards the end of summer male and

female bumblebees fly out and mate. The male is not allowed to re-enter the

nest after mating and soon dies. The fertilized queen starts searching for a

safe place to hibernate and the workers and old queen die with the first

frosts or spell of cold weather.

 

Bombylius major Dark-edged Bee Fly Common

 

An attractive early spring fly. The larvae are brood parasites in the nests

of solitary bees and they are locally abundant where suitable areas for the

nests of hosts coincide with woodlands, hedgerows or gardens rich in flowers.

Adult flies feed on nectar using their long proboscis whilst hovering beside

a flower.

 

Brachypterus urticae Nettle Pollen Beetle Common

 

2mm long black beetle feeding on pollen in nettle flowers. Very common.

 

Cabera pusaria Common White Wave Common

 

Generally distributed and common throughout Britain , except for the northern

isles, in woodland and bushy places. In Southern England there are two broods

a year, flying from May to August, but in northern England and in Scotland

the single brood flies from May to July. The caterpillars can be found

feeding on birch, sallow, alder, oak and other trees and shrubs.

 

Calameuta filiformis Reed Stem Borer Regionally Notable

 

A sawfly found in marshes, fens and damp woods. The larvae develop in

Calamagrostis epigejos, small stems of Phragmites and various other

grasses. It occurs in England south of the Humber-Severn line. Adults are on

the wing from May to July.

 

Calameuta pallipes a sawfly Common

 

A sawfly widely distributed in England and Wales and occurring as far north

as central Scotland . Adults can be found from May to July. Larvae have not

been recorded so the foodplant is not known.

 

Callaspidia defonscolombei a small parasitic wasp Unknown

 

Common cynipid. Bivoltine, adults most numerous in early viii and late ix.

Solitary parasite of Syrphidae (Diptera) and has been bred from Syrphus

ribesii (L), S vitripennis Mg, Meligramma cincta (Fallen),

Sphaerophoria scripta (L), Melanostoma scalare (Fab), Platycheirus

manicatus (Mg) and Episyrphus balteatus (Degeer). It is attracted by the

odour of the aphid prey of these syrphids.

 

Calocoris norvegicus a potato capsid Common

 

The potato capsid. A common and widely distributed species, polyphagous, and

occasionally a pest of crop and garden plants. Found in a wide range of

habitats.

 

Calocoris quadripunctatus a plantbug or grassbug Common

 

A widely distributed and common bug which lives on oak, both in woods and on

isolated trees. The eggs are laid into the female flower buds, usually

killing them, and hatch in the following spring. The yellow and red-brown

nymphs mainly feed on the juices in unripe catkins and become adult in late

May. The adults are attractive insects with a brown and yellow pattern. They

are predators on aphids and insect larvae as well as feeding on young shoots

and leaves.

 

Calvia quattuordecimguttata Cream-spot ladybird Common

 

5mm long red ladybird with white spots. Larvae aphidophagous. Locally common

throughout Britain .

 

Cantharis cryptica a soldier beetle Common

 

7-8mm long red and red-brown soldier beetle. Adults commonly on flowers, the

larvae among grass and low herbage. Very common in most habitats in Britain .

 

Cantharis decipiens a soldier beetle Common

 

7-10mm long grey and yellow-brown soldier beetle. Very common on flowers,

especially umbellifers, in the early summer, the larvae developing among

grass and low herbage. Carnivorous. Very common in grassy places, hedgerows

etc., throughout Britain .

 

Cantharis nigra Small Black Sailor Beetle Common

 

A black or red and black soldier beetle 5 to 7mm. long. Adults are found on

vegetation and flowers in early summer. Larvae develop in the soil and

amongst litter.

 

Cantharis nigricans Large Grey Sailor Beetle Common

 

6-7mm long grey and black soldier beetle. Predatory. Adults most frequently

on umbel flowers, larvae in grass litter, under stones etc. Very common in

most habitats throughout Britain .

 

Cantharis rustica Large Black Sailor Beetle Common

 

12mm long black and red soldier beetle. Predatory, feeding on other insects,

the adults frequenting umbelliferous flowers, the larvae developing on the

ground among leaf litter and grass tussocks. Widespread and common.

 

Capsus ater Common Black Plantbug Common

 

A common and widely distributed plant bug which is found throughout Britain .

It is a grass-feeder, found in a wide range of grassland types in woodland

rides and clearings and in grassy patches in other habitats. It is a ready

coloniser, quickly appearing in newly created grasslands. Unlike most capsid

bugs it does not feed principally on the buds and flowers of its hosts but at

the lower parts of the stem. The eggs are laid in batches of 3 to 30 in late

June and July between the sheathing leaf base and the grass stem. Fertile

eggs begin to develop at once, the yolk plug forming after two weeks, but

development soon stops and the eggs enter diapause and overwinter. Winter

frosts break the diapause and the eggs hatch in May and June. The purple-red

larva completes its development in around four weeks, and reaches adulthood

by early July, to be seen until mid August. There are two colour forms of the

adult, entirely black or with the head, pronotum and part of the legs brown

or red-brown.

 

Cepaea hortensis White-lipped Snail Common

 

A large banded snail, frequently with a yellow ground colour to the shell.

Forms colonies in moist, sheltered waste places, particularly amongst dense

herbage such as nettle beds but is also found on cliffs and sand-hills,

particularly in Scotland . It is widespread and common throughout much of the

British Isles . Favoured foodplants are nettle, ragwort and hogweed. It is

active in the daytime in mild, damp weather but rests in sheltered positions

attached to plants at other times. It is a favourite food of thrush species,

and the shells are often found at anvils. The shell is rather thin and

glossy, typically yellow with, usually, 5 brown bands of varying pattern and

size, and in parts of Ireland an unbanded form lutea predominates. Breeding

occurs from spring to autumn, and it lives for two or three years.

 

Cepaea nemoralis Brown-lipped Snail Common

 

A large banded snail, generally yellow in colour, with varying numbers of

darker bands on the shell which make it favoured for studies of genetics.

Very common in most lowland habitats including woodland, grassland and

gardens. It forms well-marked colonies and is fond of areas with dead

grasses, thistles and umbellifers. It is very variable in appearance and

brown, pink and nearly red forms have also been recorded, the latter

occurring more commonly in dense woodlands. It breeds in spring and summer

and the eggs hatch in 2-3 weeks, reaching adulthood the following year.

 

Cephus cultratus a sawfly Local UK

 

A sawfly, the larvae of which are stem borers of common grasses. Common in

southern England but much more scarce in the north.

 

Cercopis vulnerata Red & Black Froghopper Common

 

A very conspicuous red and black froghopper which is found in lush vegetation

in damp ditches and on the edges of woods. The nymphs are subterranean,

feeding on plant roots. It is generally common, though somewhat local, in the

south of England and reaches its northern limit around the River Tees.

 

Chaetostomella cylindrica a gall fly Common

 

A picture winged fly, with yellowish body and wings boldly marked in

yellow-brown. Larvae develop in the flowerheads of various thistles and

related genera, especially Centaurea nigra. It is widely distributed in

Britain , and very common in the south. Common in Sorby area.

 

Cheilosia albitarsis a hoverfly Common

 

A small black hoverfly with white tips to the legs. It is common throughout

the British Isles in marshes, damp meadows and woodland clearings, often

found on flowers of buttercups Ranunculus bulbosus or R. repens. On the

wing from April to July but most common in the second half of May. Adults

have been observed showing ovipositing behaviour on Ranunculus bulbosus and

the larvae are thought to feed on the roots of this plant.

 

Cheilosia illustrata a hoverfly Common

 

A bee mimic hoverfly. The larvae of this genus are miners in the stems and

roots of plants and it seems likely that this species is associated with

large umbellifers such as hogweed on which the adults are typically seen.

Adults locally common in mid summer.

 

Cheilosia pagana a hoverfly Common

 

A black hoverfly: widely distributed and generally common. Larvae develop in

the root bases of Anthriscus sylvestris and probably some other

umbelliferae.

 

Chloroclysta siterata Red-green Carpet Common

 

A woodland species found locally throughout much of the British Isles , the

larva feeding on Quercus, Sorbus acuparia and other deciduous trees.

 

Chloroclysta truncata Common Marbled Carpet Common

 

Common and widespread in a wide range of rural and urban habitats in England

and Wales , where it is double brooded with adults occurring from May through

into November according to locality, while a single brooded race occurs in

mountain and moorland areas of the north and west; it is absent from

Shetland. The caterpillars feed on a great variety of plants including

sallow, birch, privet, hawthorn, bilberry, bramble, rose, strawberry and

dock. This highly variable species overwinters as larvae on the foodplants.

 

Chloromyia formosa a soldier fly Common

 

A soldier fly which is widespread and common throughout Britain , inhabiting

woods, hedges, parks and gardens. The larva feeds in rotting vegetable matter

in damp soil, rotting bark and leaf litter. The flight period is from May

until August and the adult, which is a very common flower visitor, especially

to umbels of hogweed in mid-summer, is quite conspicuous, with a shiny green

thorax and either a brassy coloured (female) or blue-purple (male) abdomen

and very hairy eyes.

 

Chorisops tibialis a soldier fly Common

 

Small metallic-green and yellow soldier fly. Larvae terrestrial, living in

rotting vegetable matter. Adults usually found around hedges and scrub.

Fairly common in the southern half of Britain , but scarce or absent from

Yorkshire northwards.Scarce in Derbyshire.

 

Chorthippus brunneus Common Field Grasshopper Common

 

Variable coloured grasshopper, green, brown, sometimes purple. Occurs in a

wide range of grasslands. Generally common over the whole of Britain and can

be found in a variety of dry, grassy habitats, though it is seldom found in

damp or lush areas. It is often seen sunning itself on walls, paths and bare

ground on sunny days, including concreted and asphalted areas in the vicinity

of buildings. When egg laying it has a preference for bare, dry and compact

soil, often in ant hills. Eggs are laid beneath the soil and they pass the

winter in this stage usually hatching during May and producing adults by late

June and July which are then found up to the end of October and occasionally

as late as early December. It is a very strong flier, particulary during hot

weather, and makes short, rapid flights from one area to another. The call of

an isolated male is a series of short, brisk chirps with a pause between each

series but when two or more males are together they often chirp to each

other, stimulating an immediate reply from other males in the vicinity. The

female chirps regularly until mating but her call is more subdued. She

replies to males, other females and even humans if the call is simulated by a

series of short hisses or buzzes. There is no special courtship song but a

male will make sharp ticking noises by stroking the hind legs when in the

presence of a female. The nymph will attempt a reply to the chirps of adult

males but usually no audible sound is given on such occasions.

 

Chorthippus parallelus Meadow Grasshopper Common

 

A medium-sized grasshopper with reduced wings, usually brown and/or green in

colour. It is found in all types of moderately long grassland, particularly

in moister areas. Very widely distributed and generally common.

 

Chrysopa perla a green lacewing Common

 

A common green lacewing, heavily marked with black, which is particularly

frequent in the undergrowth of deciduous woods throughout Britain , preferring

those in which the vegetation consists for the most part of hazel, hawthorn

and other bushes. In addition it is sometimes found in coniferous woods and

gardens. Eggs are laid singly or in well-spaced groups of 2-6 on the

undersides of leaves and hatch in seven to nine days. Both larva and adult

prey on aphids. The larva has a habit of curling up and dropping if disturbed

and when fully grown it spins a cocoon of white silk and pupates in curled up

leaves, crevices in bark, forks of branches or twigs, cracks and holes in

wood and stone walls or in fallen pine cones.

 

Chrysoperla carnea a green lacewing Common

 

A green lacewing. It is found in a wide range of habitats, and is a common

species in gardens. The larvae are active predators, and are usually found on

the foliage of shrubs and trees. It is found throughout Britain as a

resident, and may also occur as a migrant. It is generally common, but

particularly abundant in the south.

 

Cicadella viridis Blue-green Leafhopper Common

 

A bright green and black leafhopper, 6 - 8.4mm long, found on grasses and

rushes in marshy places. Widely distributed throughout Britain and generally

common.

 

Coccinella septempunctata Seven-spot Ladybird Common

 

6.5-8mm long red ladybird with 7 black spots. Gardens, hedgerows etc. Larvae

aphidophagous. Very common, often with vast immigrations from the continent.

 

Colostygia pectinataria Green Carpet Common

 

Larvae feed on various species of bedstraw. Generally distributed and common.

 

Conops flavipes a bee-killing fly Common

 

Black and yellow, wasp-like fly with larvae parasitic on Bumblebees and

wasps. Locally common in southern England , much scarcer in the north, but one

of the most widespread species in the family.

 

Coremacera marginata a snail-killing fly Local UK

 

A snail-killing fly noticeable through having wings darkened by a reticulate

pattern. It occurs in dry habitats, especially on calcareous soils. Larvae

are parasitoids of various snails, especially Cochlicopa and Discus spp.

Each larva requires two or three snails to complete development.

In Sheffield local on good dry grassland habitats

 

Cychrus caraboides Snail Hunter Local UK

 

Large (15-19mm) dull black ground beetle with very narrow fore parts,

specially adapted to feeding on snails in their shells. Adults live under

stones, under loose bark and in litter, usually in woodland but often in

other habitats, particularly moorland. Widespread and fairly common species.

 

Cylindroiulus punctatus Blunt-tailed Snake Millipede Common

 

A common and often abundant snake millipede.

 

Cynthia cardui Painted Lady Migrant

 

Migrant that is unable to over winter. Common some years, more or less absent

in others. Gardens, waste ground etc. Larvae feed on thistle.

 

Dichetophora obliterata a snail-killing fly Local UK

 

Snail-killing fly recorded from calcareous grassland, wetland and coastal

dunes. Scattered distribution though very local from Cornwall to Yorks .

 

Didea fasciata a hoverfly Notable/Nb

 

Black and orange hoverfly which in southern England occurs in both woodland

and heathland habitats. In Scotland its ecology is apparently different.

There it is found in alder scrub on lake shores. Larva predatory on aphids.

Widespread in the southern half of Britain although very local and never

abundant.

 

Dioctria atricapilla a robber fly Local UK

 

A black robber fly which is locally abundant in grassland and woodland edges

in Southern England, the Midlands and Welsh borders but rare in Yorkshire and

in the rest of Wales . The flight period is in June and July and the stout,

black adult has strongly darkened wings and black legs and can be observed

darting out from grass stems to catch its prey.

 

Dioctria rufipes a robber fly Local UK

 

A widespread but local robber fly, generally found in scrubland or woodland

on light, sandy soils from Cornwall to Inverness , though much more localised

in the north of its range. The predatory larva lives in woodland soil and the

adult, which has orange fore- and mid-femora, can be found from May to July,

hunting from grasses or the higher points in hedgerows. Favourite prey

includes ichneumons and other hymenoptera. Localised in Derbyshire.

 

Discus rotundatus a discus snail Common

 

A small snail with a flattened, tightly-coiled shell 5 to 7mm in diameter.

Common and widespread throughout the British Isles . It conceals itself

amongst dead leaves, moss, herbage, rubbish or under logs and stones by day

and feeds by night on fungi and decaying matter. The shell is almost

discoidal with a slightly raised spire and 6 or 7 cylindrical whorls and

yellowish-brown with the whorls marked with red blotches. In the variety

turtoni the spire is neally flat, var. rufula has a brown or fawn shell

without the red blotches and var. alba has an almost-white shell, tinged

with green; this form sometimes forms its own colonies. Eggs are laid from

February to the end of the year and hatch in ten to twelve days, gaining

maturity in about one year.

 

Dolichovespula sylvestris Tree Wasp Common

 

Despite its name, the tree wasp often constructs underground (20% of nests),

although usually near the surface in a pre-existing cavity. Ariel nests are

found up to 830cm, usually in enclosed spaces such as bird boxes, hollow

trees, cavity walls etc., although exposed nests have been found in

situations where they are under cover (eg. in a porch). Widespread and

common.

 

Dolycoris baccarum Hairy Shieldbug Common

 

A widely distributed shieldbug in Britain ,but extremely local in the north

and common only in the south-east. Polyphagous, and generally in dry places,

but otherwise not strongly associated with particular habitat types.

 

Dromius linearis a ground beetle Common

 

4.5-6mm long reddish brown ground beetle. Found in most types of habitat,

often in leaf or reed litter, under bark, in moss etc. Very common throughout

Britain .

 

Elasmostethus interstinctus Birch Shieldbug Common

 

The birch shieldbug. Common on birch throughout Britain .

 

Empis (Kritempis) livida a dance fly Common

 

Large, predatory fly typically seen visiting flowers in mid-summer. Common

and widespread.

 

Ennomos alniaria Canary-shouldered Thorn Common

 

Inhabits woodland, fenland, gardens, commons and sand dunes. Larvae on a

variety of trees such as birch, sallow, alder and lime. Generally distributed

and not uncommon.

 

Epirrhoe alternata Common Carpet Common

 

Generally distributed and common, double brooded in the south and flying in

May and June and in August and September but only single brooded in northern

England and Scotland , where the adults fly in June. The caterpillars feed on

bedstraws, including cleavers, Galium aparine, and overwinter as pupae.

 

Epistrophe grossulariae a hoverfly Local UK

 

Large black and yellow hoverfly. Larvae predatory on aphids. Adults at umbels

on the edge of woods or in nearby meadows. Widespread, but local and rarely

abundant.

 

Episyrphus balteatus a hoverfly Common

 

An orange and black banded hoverfly, generally distributed and very common.

In most years, numbers are greatly boosted by immigration from the continent.

Larvae are The larvae are predatory on aphids.

 

Eristalis arbustorum a hoverfly Common

 

A moderately-sized brown and orange hoverfly. Larvae are of the rat-tailed

maggot type, and develop in foul water, wet decaying vegetation, etc. Widely

distributed and generally common.

 

Eristalis intricaria a hoverfly Common

 

A medium sized, bee mimic hoverfly found in a variety of habitats, but most

typically seen hovering high up in woodland clearings, glades or edges,

especially near marshy areas. Larvae are of the rat-tailed maggot type and

have been found in drains and ponds rich in organic matter. Widespread and

common.

 

Eristalis nemorum a hoverfly Common

 

A medium-sized brown and orange hoverfly. Larvae are of the rat-tailed maggot

type, and live in water where decaying vegetation is present. Widely

distributed and generally common.

 

Eristalis pertinax a hoverfly Common

 

A large brown and orange hoverfly. Larvae are of the rat-tailed maggot type,

and live in foul water, decaying vegetation, etc. Widely distributed and

generally common.

 

Eristalis tenax a hoverfly Common

 

A large brown and orange hoverfly. Larvae are of the rat-tailed maggot type,

and develop in foul water, rotting vegetation, etc. Widely distributed and

generally common.

 

Eupeodes latifasciatus a hoverfly Local UK

 

Hoverfly whose numbers fluctuate greatly. Sometimes a scarce species, in

other years not uncommon. A species of open habitats with a preference for

wet meadows. Larvae predatory on aphids. Widespread.

 

Eupeodes luniger a hoverfly Common

 

A black and yellow hoverfly, very common in open and wood edge habitats.

Found on the wing from April to November. Larvae predatory on aphids.

 

Euthycera fumigata a snail-killing fly Local UK

 

Snail-killing fly found in damp places near permanent water. Biology unknown

but likely to be aquatic or terrestrial snails or both. Local in GB but quite

frequent in Derbyshire.

 

Eysarcoris fabricii Woundwort Shieldbug Common

 

Widely distributed and common in the southern half of England , this species

has spread greatly in the present century. It is particularly associated with

hedge woundwort, Stachys sylvatica but has been found on a number of other

hosts in a wide range of habitat types.

 

Forficula auricularia Common Earwig Common

 

The common earwig, found under stones, in plant litter, etc, in most

habitats, including gardens and arable. Sometimes a minor pest, particularly

of garden flowers. Shows high degree of maternal care. Very common.

 

Gastrophysa viridula Green Dock Beetle Common

 

A metallic green leaf beetle feeding on Rumex (preferring the broader

leaved species), found locally in wetlands and damp, unimproved meadows.

 

Gonepteryx rhamni Brimstone Common

 

The larvae feed on Frangula and Rhamnus, the butterfly frequenting many

haunts, including woodland, wetland and chalk scrub. The distribution follows

the combined distribution of its foodplants, both being very rare in

Scotland .

 

Gortyna flavago Frosted Orange Common

 

<No species account available>

 

Gymnocheta viridis Tachinid Greenbottle Local UK

 

The Tachinid Greenbottle. Local in range of habitats including heaths, sunny

woodland edges and rides, scrub and flowery grassland. Mainly in spring and

early summer. Breeds in grass stem borer Noctuid moths

 

Haplophilus subterraneus a centipede Common

 

A long-bodied centipede found in soil and leaf litter. Often synanthropic in

northern areas eg gardens and urban grasslands.

 

Harmonia axyridis Harlequin Ladybird Naturalised

 

Harlequin Ladybird,a recent colonist from Asia ,first recorded in Sheffiled in

2006.

 

Harpalus rufipes Strawberry Seed Beetle Common

 

10-17mm long black ground beetle with red legs and yellowish pubescence.

Common in grassland, gardens, arable land, waste ground etc. Phytophagous,

sometimes a pest of strawberries.

 

Helix aspersa Large Garden Snail Common

 

The common garden snail, found throughout much of lowland Great Britain but

scarce or absent in the more base-poor regions. Can be a garden pest. Also

found in a wide range of wild habitats. Apparently passable as human food.

 

Helophilus pendulus a hoverfly Common

 

A common and widespread hoverfly which occurs in Ireland and as far north as

Shetland. The larva is a rat-tailed maggot with a long and telescopically

extensible breathing tube which enables it to breathe whilst submerged in

situations such as farmyard drains, very wet manure and very wet, old

sawdust. The adult is a brightly-marked, black and yellowish hoverfly which

may occur in numbers around muddy puddles, ditches and the shallow margins of

ponds, but it is a notable wanderer and can be found well away from water.

The flight period is between April and October.

 

Heterogaster urticae Nettle Groundbug Common

 

Confined to the southern half of Britain , this species is often very common

within its range, though extremely local in the north. Feeds on stinging

nettle Urtica dioica, usually in open places.

 

Hippodamia variegata Adonis Ladybird Notable/Nb

 

Red and black ladybird, predatory on aphids. Scarce and restricted mainly to

dry sandy places, in particular to heathlands and the coast. Widespread

scattered records around southern Britain . Rare in Sheffield SRDB

 

Hydriomena furcata July Highflyer Common

 

Very common and generally distributed in woodlands, commons, moorland,

fenland and bushy places where the adults fly from late June until August.

The eggs overwinter and the caterpillars feed on sallow, creeping Willow ,

heather, bilberry and hazel in May and June. They pupate in the seed-down of

these trees.

 

Hydromya dorsalis a snail-killing fly Common

 

Snail-killing fly. Larvae are predators of aquatic snails. Adults found

beside ponds and ditches in a wide variety of wetland habitats including

quite acid conditions. Widespread and common.

 

Hypena proboscidalis Snout Common

 

The Snout is named because of its long palpi and is common and often abundant

in woodland, commons, gardens, waste ground and other weedy places wherever

nettles grow in Britain and Ireland . The adults fly in June and July and

again in September in the south and in July and August further north.

Caterpillars can be found on stinging nettle in July and early August, and

again in October in the south, before overwintering and feeding again in

April and May. Elsewhere a single generation lives from August until the June

of the following year. Pupation takes place in a loosely-spun cocoon between

two leaves.

 

Inachis io Peacock Common

 

A resident butterfly and probably also a partial migrant within Britain

except for the far north, being a non-breeding visitor in parts of Scotland .

However, it is very common and widespread in central and southern England and

is found early in the year, sometimes in February, having overwintered from

the previous autumn in outbuidings and hollow trees, but it does not reach

sexual maturity until late April. The single generation emerges in late July

and is a common sight in gardens, particularly on budlleja flowers. It feeds

until late autumn, when suitable overwintering sites are found. The eggs are

laid in untidy batches underneath leaves of stinging nettle and the

caterpillar is at first communal and lives in a silken web on the foodplant,

forming new webs as required and using their protection for roosting and

moulting. When almost fully grown it feeds in small groups outside the web

and roosts under a leaf, before suspending from nearby vegetation to pupate.

 

Ischnodemus sabuleti European Chinchbug Common

 

A very common groundbug in southern England and Wales , associated with

grasses in marshy places, particularly with reed sweet grass Glyceria

maxima, often in very large numbers. Occasionally found in drier places.

Though much less common in the north, it is currently extending its range and

has become much more common in recent years. Still uncommon and localised in

Sheffield

Lagria hirta a darkling beetle Regionally Notable

 

Ochre-brown and black bristly beetle. Locally common in sandy places in

southern Britain , becoming more localised in the north and rare in Scotland .

 

Lasioglossum calceatum Slender Mining Bee Common

 

Small, ground nesting solitary bee usually nesting in steep banks. Widespread

and common.

 

Lasius niger Small Black Ant Common

 

A small black ant found in bushy scrubland, gardens and wet places. Only

occurs in grassland if there are stones or mounds of Lasius flavus

available. The nest is usually constructed under stones or logs, but nests of

other species may be invaded and colony size averages 5,500. Widely

distributed, but apparently absent from some parts of Scotland . One of the

commonest ants.

 

Leptogaster cylindrica a robber fly Common

 

A very slender, elongate little robber fly typically found in grassland. The

larvae are found in sandy soil or meadows with dense vegetation. A fairly

common species in southern and central England which reaches its northern

limit in Lancashire and Yorkshire .

 

Leptopterna dolabrata a grassbug Common

 

A meadow bug which is common throughout Britain and feeds on grasses in a

wide range of grassland types as well as in grassy places in woods and

marshes. The feeding of both larva and adult leaves spotting on grass blades

and deformation of flowers and grains. The eggs overwinter in the lower six

inches of the stems of host grasses and partially develop before entering

diapause and overwintering. They hatch in May and the larva is

greenish-yellow or bluish-green with black markings. The adult appears from

mid-June and occasionally survives until September. Eggs start to form in the

last instar larva and egg-laying can commence very quickly after reaching

adulthood and pairing. The adult male is macropterous but seldom flies far

above the vegetation and, though some females are also macropterous, the

majority are brachypterous. The adult has a strong stink gland fluid which

deters predators but spiders frequently attack it. It is also sometimes

parasitized by the fairy fly Enaesius agilis and by braconids.

 

Leptura maculata a longhorn beetle Common

 

Large black and yellow longhorn beetle. Larvae develop in dead wood, often in

smallish branches. Adults most often seen on hawthorn or umbel flowers.

Widespread and common in southern Britain , particularly along hedgerows and

woodland rides. Much more localised in the north.

 

Leucozona lucorum a hoverfly Common

 

Distinctive hoverfly with a large creamy-yellow band at the base of its

abdomen. A characteristic spring hoverfly in woodland glades and margins

where the adults visit spring flowers. Larvae are predatory on aphids.

Widespread and common in lowland Britain , more local in the uplands and

extreme north.

 

Limax maximus Great Grey Slug Common

 

A large slug, up to 20 cm in length, which inhabits woods, hedgerows,

wasteland and gardens, lying hidden during the day and emerging at night to

feed on fungi and almost anything other than green leaves. It has a well

developed sense of smell and is attracted to light when very hungry. Very

variable is ground-colour and markings. It is usually yellowish- or ashy-grey

with two or three longitudinal bands on each side, a rectangular shield,

marbled or spotted with black, which can be lifted up and reflected in front

when irritated, a whitish sole and colourless body-slime, which is not very

sticky.

 

Lithobius forficatus Common Centipede Common

 

The most familiar and widely distributed centipede in the British Isles and

often wanders into houses and outbuidings. It is found in a wide range of

habitats from both rural and urban areas and has been found from the

sea-shore to Scottish mountains 1,500 feet high, usually under stones and in

decaying timber. It is large (9.5-13.5mm long) and uniformly brown.

 

Lithobius variegatus Striped Centipede Common

 

A centipede of banded brown colouration, found in woodlands.

 

Longitarsus jacobaeae a leaf beetle Common

 

2-3mm long yellow flea beetle feeding on common ragwort Senecio jacobaeae.

Very common in northern England , mainly replaced by L. flavicornis in the

south.

 

Lycaena phlaeas Small Copper Common

 

A common butterfly throughout Britain wherever its foodplant grows but it

favours areas with light soils. The adult butterfly can be active in

temperatures as low as 10oC and the male selects a basking spot for his

territory, often on a stony path or bare soil, which he fiercly guards,

seeing off other males who invade his 'patch' and pursuing any passing

females. Ragwort is the favoured nectar-source, particularly in the autumn

brood, and roosting takes place on dead seed heads of grasses. The eggs are

laid very selectively on fresh growth of sorrels and sometimes docks and

hatch after about one or one and a half weeks. The slug-like caterpillar

feeds by day and rests at the base of the foodplant. At first it only eats

the cuticle, in grooves from beneath the leaves, but later the whole leaf is

eaten. There are two broods a year, flying between May and July and from

August to October, and in the second generation the caterpillar overwinters

close to the base of the foodplant. It pupates on the foodplant, attatched by

strands of silk. This butterfly can suffer from its foodplants becoming

over-run with grasses and needs plenty of bare and exposed areas to form

suitable, discrete colonies.

 

Malachius bipustulatus Malachite Beetle Common

 

Metallic green malachite beetle with red tips to elytra. Common on flowers in

grassy places over England and Wales . Rare in Scotland .

 

Maniola jurtina Meadow Brown Common

 

A very common to abundant butterfly throughout Britain , inhabiting almost any

habitat and utilising even minimal areas of grassland to breed. It survives

best in grasslands with a good mosaic of different turf heights and where

scattered, mixed scrub is in proximity. It is never abundant on short-cropped

sites and rarely common in swards dominated by tall, dense, coarse grasses.

In poorer habitats it has more eye-spot markings which distract predators, as

longer flights are often necessary to locate suitable breeding areas. The

adult flies in temperatures of 13oC and above and, unlike most butterflies,

it will fly in dull and sometimes rainy weather, even in the evening. The

eggs are laid on shorter turf, females seemingly preferring the junction of

areas of long and short grass, and hatch after two to three and a half weeks.

The caterpillar will feed on any species of grass through the summer and

autumn before overwintering, but early instars prefer fine grasses before

moving on to coarser ones. It roosts by day at the base of the plant,

ascending at night to feed, and curls up and falls to the ground when

disturbed. When fully grown in spring it spins a silken pad on a grass stem

and pupates. The adult then has a staggered emergence period from mid June to

late summer and is often seen until late September. Bramble, thistles,

ragworts and knapweeds are the favoured nectar plants. Roosting takes place

in long grasses and on tall flower heads. The adults are often found carrying

red mites.

 

Melanostoma mellinum a hoverfly Common

 

Small black and yellow hoverfly found in grassy places. One of the commonest

hoverflies throughout Britain . The larvae are predatory on aphids.

 

Merodon equestris Greater Bulb-fly Common

 

A attractive bee mimic hoverfly with various colour forms. It is sometimes

known as the 'Bulb Fly' because its larvae live within the bulbs of various

plants, including Narcissus, and it can sometimes be a garden pest for this

reason. Its wild hosts are not so well established, but bluebell is a

probable host. Widespread and common.

 

Microchrysa cyaneiventris a soldier fly Common

 

A small, shining green and black soldier fly. Larvae breed in rotting

vegetation including compost heaps. Widespread and common.

 

Microchrysa polita a soldier fly Common

 

A widespread and common soldier fly found in long grass, scrub, hedgerows,

woodland edge and other lush vegetation. The larva lives in rotting vegetable

matter and is often abundant in garden compost. The flight period is from

March-September and the adult is rather small and metallic green.

 

Myathropa florea a hoverfly Common

 

A widespread and often common bee-mimic hoverfly in gardens, hedgerows and

woodland edges. The larva is a rat-tailed maggot with a long and

telescopically extensible breathing tube which enables it to breathe whilst

submerged in water-filled cavities full of dead leaves, such as those which

occur in dead stumps or between the root bases of trees. It pupates just

above the surface of the wet wood detritus or the water, either buried in

decaying wood or exposed. The adult varies considerably in the size and

strength of its markings and is often seen visiting hogweed umbels and other

flowers between May and October.

 

 

Myrmica scabrinodis a red ant Common

 

A small reddish ant which occurs throughout Britain but prefersshort-turf,

alkaline grassland and boggy places. Tree stumps are also sometimes used for

nests and each nest is constructed from a large number of small cells with

thick, mud-plastered walls, relying less on the vegetation for support. This

creates a strong, water-retaining nest which enables the ants to survive dry

weather and live in hot, sunny places and is probably also easier to defend.

Each nest usually contains two or three queens and mating flights occur

during August. Most of its hunting occurs in short vegetation on or near the

ground, and they also remove the flesh from the carcasses of dead birds and

mammals. Unlike many ants, it keeps a large number of workers on the surface

in winter and during cold weather, moving about but becoming extremely

inactive when temperatures are below 8oC.

 

Mythimna ferrago Clay Common

 

The Clay is common over most of England , Wales and Ireland , Scotland to

Argyll and the Inner Hebrides in the west and to Caithness in the east. It is

found in most habitats but is less common near the coast than inland and most

abundant in and near woodland and flies from late June to early August. The

caterpillars feed mainly on grasses but also on other low growing plants such

as chickweed, dandelion and plantain. They hibernate and feed rapidly in

spring until fully grown by mid May when they pupate below the surface of the

soil in silk and earth cocoons.

 

Nanogona polydesmoides a flat-backed millipede Common

 

A common millipede found throughout Britain and Ireland except, as yet, the

Outer Hebrides and the Shetlands.

 

Nelima gothica a harvestman Local UK

 

A harvestman found in low vegetation and under logs or stones. Also

occasionally in cellars and around buildings. Very local in scattered

localities throughout Britain .

 

Nemastoma bimaculatum a harvestman Common

 

A small black harvestman with two white spots on the abdomen. Found in leaf

and grass litter in many habitats. Very common.

 

Neoascia podagrica a hoverfly Common

 

A small black and yellow wasp-mimic hoverfly, common in a variety of habitats

wherever there is lush vegetation. On the wing from April to October. Larvae

have been found in wet decaying manure but are likely to be found in a range

of decaying organic material.

 

Nephrotoma flavescens a cranefly Common

 

A widespread cranefly which occurs in dry, open grasslands where the larva

feeds on roots and can be a serious pest on lawns and golf courses. The adult

is yellow with black markings and flies from June until August.

 

Noctua pronuba Large Yellow Underwing Common

 

The Large Yellow Underwing occurs commonly throughout the British Isles ,

though mostly in lowland habitats. The single generation flies from July to

September and large numbers of immigrants sometimes swarm on the south coast.

They roost by day on or close to the ground and when disturbed scuttle wildly

on the ground. displaying the brightly-coloured hindwings. The caterpillars

feed on a wide range of wild and cultivated herbs throughout the winter,

spending a lot of time below ground, where they pupate in late spring.

 

Notostira elongata a grassbug Common

 

A common and widely distributed, though predominantly southern,grassbug which

is found in a wide variety of grassy places on reasonably dry, neutral to

calcareous soils. There are two generations a year and the adult females of

the two generations differ both in size and colour so considerably that they

were previously thought to be two species. A female of the summer generation

is larger with longer antennae and wings than one of the autumn generation

and is completely green. A female of the second generation is brown with a

pinkish tint before hibernation but in the spring the abdomen becomes bright

green. Only the adult female overwinters, having being fertilized the

previous autumn, and lays batches of up to 15 yellowish-white eggs between

stem and leaf blade from late April until June. These becoming paler and

absorb water, swelling considerably, and the pale green larva is found in May

and June.

 

Ochlodes venata Large Skipper Local UK

 

A very common butterfly in southern Britain but is more local in the very

northernmost part of England and rare in Scotland , except the South West. It

frequents rough grassland, wasteground and woodland rides with a preference

for ungrazed south-facing slopes and can tolerate a high proportion of scrub,

though it does not like more open, grazed turf. The eggs are laid singly

under the blades of soft grasses, particularly bromes and yorkshire fog,

Holcus lanatus, and hatch after two to three weeks. The caterpillar eats

its egg shell on hatching before constructing a shelter by drawing together

the edges of a grass blade with strands of silk. It leaves the shelter to

feed by night and for short periods during the day, and hibernates within the

shelter when almost full grown in autumn. In spring it re-commences feeding

and later pupates in a tent of grass blades spun together with silk. The

adult butterfly flies from mid-June to mid August but the temperature for

flying has to be 15oC and above. Courtship is normally 3-4 metres up on

scrub or trees and involves a great deal of communication with the antennae.

Mowing or grazing is damaging to this species as it needs a continuity of

tussocks and clumps of the larval foodplants. Although it is tolerant of

scrub this could shade out its foodplant grasses if it becomes too dominant.

 

Oedemera lurida a thick-legged flower beetle Local UK

 

A dull metallic-green elongate beetle. The larvae develop in plant stems and

the adults are usually found on flowers, particularly umbels and hawthorns.

In the south it can be quite common but more unusual north of the Midlands .

 

Oligolophus tridens a harvestman Common

 

A common and widely distributed species throughout the British Isles . It

appears to have a preference for the ground layer of woods, but it may also

occur in the rank vegetation of marshes, hedgerows and gardens. It is dull

brown and the femora are angular.

 

Ommatoiulus sabulosus Striped Millipede Common

 

One of the larger British millipedes: cylindrical, dark, and distinguished by

two ginger stripes along the dorsal surface. Widespread and common in

Britain , especially on dunes.

 

Omocestus viridulus Common Green Grasshopper Common

 

A medium-sized grasshopper, variably coloured but usually predominantly

green. It is found in a wide range of grassland situations, and is generally

common over the whole of Britain , though extremely local in some parts of the

south-east.

 

Oniscus asellus Common Shiny Woodlouse Common

 

One of the commonest and most ubiquitous of British woodlice. It occurs in

moist shady places in most habitats, including woodlands and gardens, where

it is usually found under bark and in litter. It avoids drier habitats such

as limestone turf and is one of the few woodlice that can tolerate acid

soils. It is usually grey with irregular lighter patches but yellow and

orange forms are common near the sea. The body is smooth and glossy in

adults, rough in young animals.

 

Opisthograptis luteolata Brimstone Moth Common

 

Generally distributed and very common in a variety of habitats. In southern

Britain it is multiple brooded but becomes single brooded in the north, the

adults can be seen from April onwards flying mostly during dusk and the early

part of the night. The caterpillars feed on hawthorn, blackthorn, rowan, plum

and other trees throughout summer and overwinter as pupae.

 

Opomyza germinationis an opomyzid fly Common

 

Small fly with strongly marked wings. The larvae of this family are stem

borers in grasses. Extremely abundant in grassy places throughout Britain

north to Orkney. Larvae feed within the stems of many common grasses. There

is a single generation per year. Adults emerge in June, lay eggs on the soil

near host plants from September to November and third instar larvae

overwinter.

 

Ourapteryx sambucaria Swallow-tailed Moth Common

 

Generally distributed and common in England , Wales and southern Scotland

though it is local as far north as Ross-shire. It lives in woodlands, gardens

and on commons and the single generation, which flies in July, is most active

at dusk and in the early evening. The stick-like caterpillars feed on ivy and

a variety of trees and shrubs from August through to June, except during

winter when they overwinter on the foodplant.

 

Oxycera rara a soldier fly Local UK

 

Soldier fly. Scattered records from southern Britain . Larvae are aquatic,

usually occurring in small flushes.

 

Pachygaster leachii a soldier fly Local UK

 

Small black soldier fly. Larvae under bark of oak and also at roots of

Angelica. Adults mostly on foliage of trees and shrubs. Local, rare in the

north.Regionally Notable for northern England . Rare in Sheffield .

 

Palloptera campta a picture-wing fly Common

 

A small, yellow fly with black spots on each wing and it flies from May to

September in woodland clearings. The larvae feed inside the basal part of the

stems of false oat-grass.

 

Palomena prasina Large Green Shieldbug Common

 

The green shieldbug. Widely distributed in England and Wales , and recorded

from Scotland , but very much rarer in the north, and very local in parts of

its range. It occurs in a wide range of habitats, but towards the edge of its

range seems to be more confined to woodland.

 

Panorpa communis a scorpion fly Common

 

A scorpion-fly, of distinctive appearance with flexible red-tipped abdomen,

elongate face and boldly black-marked wings. Larvae live in tunnels or cells

in the soil. The adults are found in a wide range of habitats, typically

amongst rank or scrubby vegetation in places such as hedgerows, wood margins,

nettle beds and bramble thickets. Adults are both predacious and scavenging.

It occurs on a wide range of soils, and is widely distributed and generally

common throughout Britain .

 

Panorpa germanica a scorpion fly Common

 

A scorpion-fly, of distinctive appearance with flexible red-tipped abdomen,

elongate face and boldly black-marked wings. The larvae live in tunnels or

cells in the soil. The adults are found in a wide range of habitats, usually

amongst rank or scrubby vegetation in such sites as woodland rides and edges,

hedgerows, nettle beds and bramble patches. The adults are both predacious

and scavenging. It occurs on a wide range of soils, and is widely distributed

and common throughout Britain .

 

Paragus haemorrhous a hoverfly Local UK

 

An inconspicuous hoverfly which likes sparsely vegetated, sunny ground such

as the margins of paths and landslips. The larvae are predatory on aphids.

Localised in Derbyshire and Sheffield

 

Pararge aegeria Speckled Wood Common

 

A woodland species probably flying in more shadier conditions than any other

British butterfly. The eggs are laid on a range of grasses, shaded grasses

being preferred. Frequent in southern and western England and Wales , scarce

in East Anglia , apart from Breckland, northern England , though more frequent

in western Scotland and around the Moray Firth .

 

Paroligolophus agrestis a harvestman Common

 

This harvestman is widespread and it is probably the most abundant species in

the British Isles . It may be found in woodland, parkland, grassland,

sand-dunes, heaths, hedgerows and gardens. It has a silvery or grey abdomen

with brown or reddish markings, the legs are comparatively short and the

femora are rounded.

 

Perapion curtirostre a seed weevil Common

 

<No species account available>

 

Perizoma didymata Twin-spot Carpet Common

 

<No species account available>

 

Phasia obesa a tachinid fly Local UK

 

Parasitic fly. Host unknown. Widespread but scarce.Scarce in Derbyshire and

Sheffield .

 

Pherbellia albocostata a snail-killing fly Common

 

A widely distributed and common snail-killing fly. Grasslands, scrub and

woodland mainly in limestone areas in the Peak.

 

Philaenus spumarius Cuckoo-spit Insect Common

 

A small (5.3 - 6.9mm.) froghopper, very variably patterned in brown, black

and white. Larvae develop in froth lumps on a wide range of plants. Found

throughout Britain and generally abundant throughout the summer on a wide

variety of trees and low plants.

 

Philonthus tenuicornis a rove beetle Local UK

 

an uncommon rove beetle

 

Philoscia muscorum Long-legged Woodlouse Common

 

A common woodlouse, found in a wide range of habitats, but preferring drier

habitats than other common woodlice. Scree, limestone turf, under discarded

wood, bricks and mortar.

 

Phragmatobia fuliginosa Ruby Tiger Common

 

A widespread and locally common moth in most habitats throughout the British

Isles as far north as Orkney. Usually there is a single generation of moths

in May and June and occasionally they fly in sunshine and run rapidly over

herbage. The caterpillars feed on a wide range of herbaceous plants in summer

and overwinter when full grown. After hibernation they do not feed but pupate

in closely-spun silk cocoons amongst debris. Occasionally they do not

overwinter but produce a small second brood in September.

 

Phyllobius roboretanus Small Green Nettle Weevil Common

 

3-5mm long bright green weevil living on foliage and catkins of common nettle

Urtica dioica. Very common throughout Britain .

 

Phyllobius viridiaeris Green Nettle Weevil Local UK

 

4mm long bright green weevil feeding on nettles. Very common.

 

Phytocoris tiliae a plantbug or grassbug Common

 

A widely distributed and generally common plant bug throughout Britain , on

the trunks and branches of a range of broadleaved trees. Largely predacious.

 

Phytomyza ilicis Holly Leaf Gall Fly Common

 

A very common and widespread small, grey, leaf mining-fly which has a single

generation each year. The adult flies emerge towards the end of May and lay

eggs near the base of the midrib on the underside of young holly leaves. The

larvae mine the midribs before moving into the leaf-blades in autumn and

cause very characteristic blotch mines in the upper surfaces. They pupate in

the mine in March after preparing a thin triangular section of leaf to aid

emergence. It is very common in all habitats and hardly a holly tree in the

country will be found without it. The community of parasites and inquilines

associated with the species are well studied.

 

Pieris brassicae Large White Common

 

A widely distributed and often common butterfly whose numbers vary greatly

from year to year because of migration. The caterpillar feeds gregariously at

first, chiefly on crucifers, and can be a pest on cabbages, though it will

feed on nasturtium in gardens. When fully grown it pupates on the foodplant

or crawls to a nearby fence or wall, sometimes entering outhouses. There are

2-3 broods a year from May until October and it overwinters as a pupa, though

many are parasitised by braconid and chalcid wasps.

 

Pieris napi Green-veined White Common

 

A widespread and common butterfly throughout Britain , absent only from the

extreme north. It shows much local variation, for example the Irish race has

a very heavy suffusion of grey scaling and in Scotland and northern England

the females have a more buff ground colour. It frequents a variety of

habitats but is most common in open woodland and grassland. The eggs are laid

singly on crucifers including rape, cuckoo-flower, hedge mustard and horse

radish. The caterpillar feeds beneath the leaves before pupating on the

foodplant or a nearby fence or post. It overwinters as a pupa and there are

2-3 broods a year from April until October.

 

Pieris rapae Small White Common

 

A widely distributed and generally common resident, reinforced in some years

by immigrants from the continent. There are 2-3 broods a year flying from

early spring through to autumn. The caterpillars feed chiefly on crucifers

and can be a pest of cabbages, and the pupae overwinter.

 

Pimpla hypochondriaca an ichneumon wasp Common

 

Very common, especially in hedgerows, gardens and similar situations, and

widely distributed in the British Isles north to Ross and Cromarty. Flight

period: vi-x; bivoltine, overwintering as a prepupa. It attacks the naked or

cocooned pupae of medium-sized to large Lepidoptera that pupate above ground,

particularly on tall vegetation, bushes, fences, etc. Reared from: Zygaena

sp (1)(Zygaenidae), ?Olethreutes lacunana (Denis and

Schiffermuller)(1)(Tortricidae), Papilio machaon L (3)(Papilionidae),

Pieris brassicae (L)(26), Pieris rapae (L)(3), Pieris sp (2)

(Pieridae),Lycaena dispar batavus (Oberth641r)(20, from 1 survey of this

host)(Lycaenidae), Eriogaster lanestris (L)(1), Malacosoma neustria

(L)(6), Lasiocampa quercus (L)(1), Philudoria potatoria (L)(1)

(Lasiocampidae), Saturnia pavonia (L)(1)(Saturniidae), Drepana binaria

(Hufnagel)(2)(Drepanidae), Tethea ocularis (L)(1)(Thyatiridae), Abraxas

grossulariata (L)(1), Ennomos autumnaria (Werneburg)(1), Biston

betularia (L)(1), Peribatodes rhomboidaria (Denis and Sciffermuller)(2),

Alcis jubata (Thunberg)(1)(Geometridae), Mimas tiliae (L)(1), Deilephila

porcellus (L)(1)(Sphingidae), Cerura vinula (L)(1, failed to escape from

the hard host cocoon)(Notodontidae), Orgyia recens (Hubner)(3), Orgyia

antiqua

 

Pisaura mirabilis Tent Spider Common

 

A large (10-15mm) greyish or brownish hunting spider with a prominent yellow

stripe along the carapace. Typically seen hunting on the ground or over low

vegetation in gardens, woods and heaths. Very common and widespread.

 

Platycheirus albimanus a hoverfly Common

 

Small grey and black hoverfly. Hedgerows, woodland margins, gardens etc. The

larvae are predatory on aphids. One of the commonest hoverflies and with a

very long flight period.

 

Platycheirus angustatus a hoverfly Common

 

Small, narrow, black and yellow hoverfly. Damp grassland and marshes,

sometimes drier grassland. Widespread in suitable localities, but possibly

more abundant in the south.

 

Platycheirus clypeatus sens. str a hoverfly Common

 

Small black and yellow hoverfly. Damp grassland, marshes and bogs. The larvae

are predatory on aphids. One of the commonest hoverflies in wet localities

throughout Britain .

 

Platycheirus rosarum a hoverfly Local UK

 

Dark coloured hoverfly with a pair of yellow spots on the abdomen. The larvae

are predatory on aphids. Wet meadows, well vegetated ditches and marshes.

Widespread, but usually scarce, especially in the north.

 

Plusia festucae Gold Spot Common

 

A brightly coloured moth which is most common by streams and in marshland,

fenland, damp woodland rides and clearings, river banks and boggy moorland

but is well distributed throughout Britain and Ireland , including the

off-shore islands. There are two broods in southern England and a single

brood from the midlands northwards. The double brooded adults fly in June and

July and in August and September while the single brood flies in July and

August. They rest on Iris during the day and fly from dusk to feed from

night-scented flowers whilst on the wing. Caterpillars have been recorded

feeding on various sedges, yellow iris and water plantain. Those of the first

brood feed quickly, but second generation and single-brooded individuals

overwinter as small larvae at the bases of the foodplants and feed up in the

spring, then pupate in transparent, strong cocoons in folded leaves.

 

Polygonia c-album Comma Common

 

The larva feeds on Urtica dioica, Humulus lupulus and Ulmus spp. The

historical distribution of this species has fluctuated greatly though

presently it occurs in the entire southern half of Britain .

 

Polyommatus icarus Common Blue Common

 

A common butterfly throughout Britain except in Shetland and occurs in

colonies which vary in size depending on the suitability of the habitat.

Commons, heaths and hillsides with low vegetation are its preferred habitats,

though old disused quarries, railway cuttings and shingle coastlines are also

popular. It is very colonial but wanders a great deal and new colonies are

often formed within several kilometres of an exsisting population. The

minimum active temperature for adult butterflies of the first brood is

14oC, with the later brood needing 16oC. Mating takes place on a sturdy

stem of any low-growing plant and communal roosting often occurs on the

flower or seed heads of various plants. The eggs are laid singly near the

stalks of the larval foodplants which is usually bird's-foot trefoil, but

occasionally black medick, clovers and other leguminous plants are used. The

young caterpillar feeds only on the cuticle until half grown, when flowers

and seed pods are also eaten, and the second brood overwinters when small in

the base of the foodplant, resuming feeding in spring. Although generally a

nocturnal feeder it has been observed feeding by day. The pupa is formed in a

flimsy cocoon at the base of the foodplant, and is probably often buried by

ants as both larva and pupa are attractive to them. There are two broods in

the south, flying in May and June and from mid-August until October, whereas

in northern England and Scotland there is a single brood in July and August.

Because bird's-foot trefoil is a rapid coloniser of disturbed ground this

butterfly can often benefit from grass cutting, although it is rarely found

on uniformly short turf and requires a mixture of turf heights.

 

Porcellio scaber Common Rough Woodlouse Common

 

One of the commonest woodlice in Britain and prefers drier habitats,

including sand dunes and acid heaths, though it is also common on tree trunks

and walls and abundant on waste ground, in gardens and in grassland. It is

usually grey, though an orange form speckled with black is frequent,

particularly in the juvenile and female.

 

Propylea quattuordecimpunctata 14-spot Ladybird Common

 

3.5-5mm long black and yellow angular spotted ladybird. Larvae aphidophagous.

Very common in most habitats, including gardens.

 

Psila merdaria a psilid fly Common

 

a large psilid fly found on low plants in damp places May to September.

Larvae feed on the roots of plants.

 

Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata 22-spot Ladybird Common

 

A ladybird which is yellow with black spots. Widely distributed and generally

common on low vegetation, but it does not occur in Scotland . Its colour

pattern varies very little and both adult and larva feed on mildews. It can

be found from April until August.

 

Pterostichus niger a ground beetle Common

 

15-20mm long predatory black ground beetle. Common in most habitats,

including gardens and arable, although does not occur in very dry places.

Adults live under stones, under bark, in tussocks etc.

 

Pyronia tithonus Gatekeeper Common

 

Common in southern Britain north to mid Yorkshire . Very rare north of that.

Grassy places, including woodland rides etc. Larvae feed on coarse grasses.

 

Quercusia quercus Purple Hairstreak Local UK

 

Inhabits woodlands, the larva feeding on Quercus. Widely distributed in

southern England becoming scarcer from the Midlands northwards. Widespread in

Wales and very local in parts of Scotland .

 

Rhagio scolopaceus Common Downlooker Fly Common

 

A widespread and common 'downlooker fly' in wooded areas. The long, whitish

larva lives in soil, rotting wood and ground litter (where it also pupates),

feeding on the larvae of other insects. The adult, which flies from May until

July, is a slim, yellow black banded, predatory fly with brown clouded wing

markings and typically sits facing downwards on a tree trunk or similar

perch, from where it makes short flights at passing prey.

 

Rhagio tringarius a snipe fly Common

 

Down-looker fly. Large, brownish predatory fly found amongst scrub and in

damp places. Larvae live in soil. Widespread and common in suitable

situations.

 

Rhagonycha fulva Common red soldier beetle Common

 

7-10mm long orange red soldier beetle with black tips to the wing cases.

Adults very common on umbelliferous flowers in late July, predatory on other

insects. Larvae predatory at base of grasses etc. Very common.

 

Rhagonycha limbata a soldier beetle Common

 

6mm long yellowish brown and black soldier beetle. Predatory, usually found

on umbels and composite flowers. Larvae predatory, probably in soil or among

grass roots. Very common throughout Britain .

 

Rhogogaster viridis a sawfly Common

 

A sawfly. Widespread and common.

 

Rhyzobius litura a ladybird Common

 

A small pale orange-brown ladybird, widespread and generally common low down

on vegetation in a wide range of habitats.

 

Rilaena triangularis a harvestman Common

 

A small pale brown harvestman, common and widespread. Adult from spring to

mid-summer.

 

Rivula sericealis Straw Dot Common

 

A moth of marshes, fenland, mosses and the damper parts of woodland,

moorland, heathland and commons. Larva on Brachypodium. Southern half of

Britain , local in western Scotland . Derbyshire Red Data Book species.

 

Sarcophaga sp. a flesh fly

 

A large grey and black flesh fly attracted to carrion

 

Scaeva pyrastri a hoverfly Common

 

A common hoverfly in the south but scarcer in the north and west and large

numbers migrate to Britain from the continent. Eggs are laid among aphids on

the underside of a leaf or on a plant stem and three or four days later the

2mm long white larva emerges and hunts its prey. It feeds by plunging its

mouthparts into the body of an aphid and sucks out the juices, holding the

prey away from the surface on which it is resting, whilst retaining its own

hold with the hind part of the body. The larva has also been known to feed on

caterpillars. After a few days the slug-like larva changes to green with a

pale stripe down the middle of its body. When moving it uses its mouthparts

to secure a hold, pulls up its hind parts and then stretches its head out for

another grip, the whole movement being a series of rippling undulations. It

is sightless and senses its prey by chemical means, swaying its head from

side to side to locate nearby aphids. When fully grown the larva attaches

itself to a leaf or stem by its mouthparts and shrinks to a brownish,

pear-shaped pupa. After a further ten days the adult fly forces off a piece

of the puparium and emerges to feed on pollen and nectar. The adult is a

large black hoverfly with creamy or white bar-shaped markings on the abdomen,

though there is a black form, unicolor, which lacks these cream/white

markings.

 

Sciara hemeroboides Sciarid Fly Common

 

A Sciarid Fly. Adults fairly common on flowers in summer.

 

Scotopteryx chenopodiata Shaded Broad-bar Common

 

Adults in a wide range of habitats including sand dunes, downland, waste

ground and grassy embankments where they can be found visiting flowers from

dusk onwards. Larvae on vetches and clovers. Widespread and moderately common

throughout Britain .

 

Sinodendron cylindricum Rhinoceros Beetle Common

 

Rhinoceros beetle. Larvae bore into firm dead timber of broadleaved trees in

early stages of decay. Widespread but local. Occurs in most ancient woodlands

but also common in secondary woods, old trees in hedges, etc.

 

Sitona lineatus Pea and Bean Weevil Common

 

4-5mm long brown weevil feeding on most species of leguminosae mainly in

grassland. Common pest in gardens of peas and beans.

 

Sphaeridium scarabaeoides a scavenger water beetle Common

 

5-8mm long oval black beetle with red and yellow markings. Adults are

attracted to very fresh (liquid) cow dung, wherein the larvae develop. Very

common throughout Britain .

 

Sphaerophoria interrupta a hoverfly Local UK

 

A hoverfly found in grasslands and landslipped coastal cliffs. It is rarely

seen in numbers although widely distributed. The larvae are predatory on

aphids.

 

Sphaerophoria scripta a hoverfly Common

 

An elongate, yellow and black hoverfly which is widely distributed and

generally common, often abundant and found most commonly on open grassland.

In some years the resident population is boosted by migration from the

continent. The larva feeds on aphids on herbaceous plants. The flight period

is from May through to October and the adult is a common sight feeding from

flowers or flying about and resting on leaves, often as mated pairs.

 

Stenodema laevigatum a grassbug Common

 

A common and widely distributed grassbug, found throughout most of Britain

but becoming rare in the extreme north. It lives on grasses in a wide range

of habitat types but shows a preference for damper and more luxuriant

grasslands, including woodland clearings and river banks. Nymphs and adults

feed on the sap and juices of a wide variety of grasses, particularly meadow

foxtail, timothy, red fescue, bent and wavy hair-grass. They are especially

fond of the flowerheads, piercing and sucking the buds and unripe grains.

Adults appear in late July and August and feed readily, building up a fat

body to last through the winter. After hibernation they mate and the eggs are

laid from late May to early July in the developing flowerheads of the

foodplants. The nymphs take about a month to mature, by which time the

previous generation have virtually all died. Nymphs are greenish and develop

a reddish dorsal stripe in the final instar while the newly-moulted adult id

light yellow with thin red lines which soon fadeas the ground colour becomes

browner. In the spring the females become bright green but the males remain

brownish.

 

Strongylogaster multifasciata Bracken Sawfly Common

 

Usually associated with Bracken

 

Sympetrum striolatum Common Darter Common

 

A small, red, darter dragonfly which breeds in a wide range of still to slow

flowing water bodies including ditches, ponds, lakes, peat pools, and,

occasionally, slow flowing streams and rivers. It is a widespread species in

Britain , but there is uncertainty over the status of S. nigrescens from

which it may or may not be distinct. It appears that neither favour upland

areas, but, if S. nigrescens is a distinct species, it replaces S.

striolatum in Scotland . S. striolatum is widespread in Europe , except in

the extreme north, and extends eastwards to Japan . It also occurs in northern

Africa .

 

Syritta pipiens a hoverfly Common

 

Small hoverfly which is widespread and very common throughout Britain , though

rarer in remote areas of Scotland . Occurs in urban areas, rough meadows,

along hedgerows and in marshy situations. The larva develops in compost,

manure, silage and other rotting organic matter. The adult is a small

hoverfly with rather distinctive, swollen hind legs and is often seen at

flowers. In flight it mimics a solitary wasp but its precision flying and

hovering between jerky, darting flights makes it a typical hoverfly. The male

is extremely territorial, darting and driving out any straying males and

performing a courtship dance to females, which involves moving in an arc and

flashing the silver markings on face, thorax and abdomen in the sunshine. The

flight period extends from March to October, often with peaks in July and

August.

 

Syrphus ribesii a hoverfly Common

 

A yellow and black banded hoverfly, widely distributed and generally common.

Larvae are predators on aphids.

 

Syrphus torvus a hoverfly Common

 

A yellow and black banded hoverfly found in wooded areas throughout Britain .

Its larvae are predators of aphids.

 

Tachina fera a tachinid fly Common

 

A large attractive parasitic fly. Hosts are caterpillars of Noctuid moths.

Two adult flight periods May-June & August-early Oct. Fairly common.

 

Tachypodoiulus niger White-legged Snake Millipede Common

 

A very common snake millipede which is found in a wide variety of habitats,

often synanthropic. It is brown-black to black in colour with white legs and

a pointed 'tail', 20-50 mm long and has from 41 to 56 segments in adult form.

It has a life cycle taking 21 months to complete with 8 moults. This is an

active millipede which is found in woodland and open ground, often in

calcareous soils. It feeds above ground, grazing on encrustations on walls

and trunks, usually at night, and rests during the day under a stone or dead

wood.

 

Tenthredopsis nassata a sawfly Common

 

A sawfly. Widespread and common.

 

Tephritis cometa a gall fly Local UK

 

An attractively patterned picture-winged fly which breeds in the flower head

of creeping thistle, Cirsium arvense. Occurs mainly in south-east England .

New to Derbyshire in 1999 only 3 known sites.New to Sheffield in 2003. Seems

to be extending its range.

 

Tephritis formosa a gall fly Local UK

 

Picture winged fly with larvae in a swelling in the capitula of Sow Thistles

Sonchus species. Rather a restricted distribution in the south-east of

England north to Yorkshire. 15 sites in Sorby area

 

Tephritis neesii a gall fly Local UK

 

A picture winged fly whose larvae attack the flower head of Oxeye Daisy

Leucanthemum species. Occurs throughout the British Isles, but commonest in

southern England. Common in Sorby area

 

Terellia ruficauda a gall fly Common

 

Picture winged fly. Larvae live in the flower heads of thistles (Cirsium

arvense, C. palustre and C. pratense). Widespread and common in southern

Britain, north to Yorkshire. 23 sites in Sorby area.

 

Tetanocera elata Common Slug-killing Fly Common

 

A widespread and very common snail-killing fly which is found in all types of

terrestrial habitat, particularly on vegetation bordering ponds or streams

and in marshes. The eggs are laid singly or in small batches and hatch after

a few weeks. The larva is a specialist predator of slugs, attaching itself to

the body of a passing slug and first feeding on its mucus before piercing the

skin and killing it within 2 days. The adult is found from June to September.

 

Tetrix subulata Slender Ground Hopper Local RDB

 

A groundhopper, resembling a small grasshopper, which occurs as many colour

varieties. Usually found in moist places such as water meadows, fens, stream

margins and wet woodland rides. An active species which flies readily in warm

weather. Found mainly south of the Wash-Severn line. Locally abundant

although easily overlooked.Derbyshire RDB.Notts BAP species.

 

Thymelicus sylvestris Small Skipper Common

 

A common butterfly in much of England and Wales but does not occur in the

extreme north-east of England nor in Scotland. It frequents rough grassland,

especially where the sward is allowed to grow tall, and has a particular

preference for long grass edges such as alongside paths and tracks. The eggs

are laid in late summer on various soft grasses, particularly bromes and

yorkshire fog, Holcus lanatus, where they are hidden in grass sheaths,

hatch after three to four weeks and the caterpillar goes straight into

hibernation. In spring it feeds nocturnally, resting by day in a shelter made

by drawing together the sides of a grass blade, and when fully grown it spins

several blades together for pupating, which lasts about 14 days. The adult

butterfly flies from July to September, roosting communally on grass heads

from late afternoon, sometimes in large numbers. The temperature for flying

needs to be at least 15-16oC and much time is spent feeding at flowers,

particularly thistles and knapweeds. This butterfly would suffer if coarse

grasses such as Brachypodium were to supress its more favoured grasses and

the cutting of corridors through long grassland might be beneficial to it.

 

Tipula lateralis a cranefly Common

 

A common and widespread cranefly which is found in both lowland and upland

areas and occurs by streams, ponds and other water margins, including

seepages in fields and on coastal cliffs. The female's ovipositor is

noticably small and the larva is aquatic. There are usually two generations

each year, one in spring which flies in April and May and one in autumn which

flies in September. The adults avoid shaded situations.

 

Trichoniscus pusillus Common Soil Woodlouse Common

 

A widespread and common, small pink or reddish-brown woodlouse, mottled with

white, which also occurs in a purple form. It is found throughout Britain and

has been recorded up to 800m in the Scottish Highlands, and it occupies a

wide range of habitats, including acid moorland. The parthenogenetic triploid

form occurs in the north and west while the diploid bisexual form occurs in

the south east. Because of its small size and retiring habits it is not often

seen, though it can occur at densities of thousands per square metre in thick

grass litter. It is very prone to desiccation, migrating into the soil in

droughts or cold weather.

 

Trichoniscus pygmaeus Tiny White Woodlouse Common

 

A tiny off-white woodlouse found in a variety of habitats through much of

Great Britain . Tends to occur deep in the soil, on calcareous rather than

acidic sites.

 

Tryphon trochanteratus an ichneumon wasp Unknown

 

A parasitic wasp

 

Tyria jacobaeae Cinnabar Common

 

Widespread throughout much of England and Wales , rather local and mainly

coastal in the southern half of Scotland . The larva feeds on Senecio,

especially S.jacobaea.

 

Urophora cardui a gall fly Common

 

A picture-winged fly with wings very prominently marked with transverse black

bands. Larvae develop in a gall on the stem of creeping thistle, Cirsium

arvense. It is locally common in the southern counties of England and Wales ,

but much scarcer north of the Wash.New to Derbyshire in 2008, new to

Sheffield in 2010.

 

Urophora jaceana a gall fly Common

 

A picture winged fly, with yellow and black body and wings prominently marked

with black transverse bands. Larvae develop in galls in the flowerheads of

knapweed, Centaurea nigra and probably C. debauxii. It is common

throughout Britain .

 

Urophora stylata a gall fly Common

 

A picture-winged fly with a black and yellow body and dark brown stripes on

the wings. The larvae live in a hard gall formed in the flower head of

thistles (Cirsium vulgare, C. arvense and Carduus nutans). Widespread

and fairly common in southern Britain north to Yorkshire.Common in Sorby

area.

 

Vanessa atalanta Red Admiral Migrant

 

An immigrant butterfly from North Africa which reaches most of Britain in

late spring. It will breed here and produces a home-grown generation in late

summer which is seen into October but does not usually survive the winter. In

the autumn generation, the adult is attracted to fallen fruit and budleja

flowers. The eggs are laid on the upperside of stinging nettle leaves and the

young caterpillar binds the edges of a leaf together with strands of silk and

feeds within this tent. Several leaves are bound together to form a pupation

tent and the caterpillar suspends itself before pupating inside.

 

Vespula vulgaris Common Wasp Common

 

Social wasp which typically forms large colonies underground. The nest is

started in an existing cavity such as a mouse nest, in rockeries or in

rubbish heaps, usually in a bank rather than on flat ground. Ariel nests

occur, but are always in enclosed spaces such as cavity walls, attics or

hollow trees. Widespread and common.

 

Volucella pellucens a hoverfly Common

 

A large black and white hoverfly, commonly to be found on bramble flowers or

hovering in woodland glades. The larvae are scavengers in the nests of social

wasps.

 

Xanthia icteritia Sallow Moth Common

 

Inhabits damp woodland, commons, marshy places, heathland, moorland etc.

Young larvae feed on sallow catkins, later moving onto the leaves or, more

frequently, to low plants. Widespread and generally common.

 

Xestia c-nigrum Setaceous Hebrew Character Common

 

A moth. Larvae on common nettle and probably many other herbaceous plants.

Most common in southern England, though reported from most parts of the

British Isles.

 

Xylena exsoleta Sword-grass Notable/Nb

 

Moorland and open woodland, the larva on a variety of low growing plants.

Local but widespread in Scotland, parts of southern Wales and northern

England, elsewhere the species has seriously declined. Status should possibly

be Na.

 

Xylota segnis a hoverfly Common

 

Orange and black hoverfly which resembles an Ichneumon wasp. Adults are

characteristically seen running about, or sunbathing, on leaves in hedgerows

and woodland - rarely at flowers. Wet, very rotten dead wood is the usual

breeding site, but a variety of wet decomposing vegetable matter (eg.

sawdust, decomposed silage) has been recorded. Widespread and usually common

in or near woods.

 

Xyphosia miliaria a gall fly Common

 

A widespread and common picture-winged fly which occurs throughout the

British Isles Its larva lives in the flower heads of marsh thistles, Cirsium

palustre, creeping thistle, C. arvense, woolly thistle, C. eriophorum,

and burdock, Arctium vulgare, causing a gall, and spins its cocoon from

pappus hairs. There are two generations a year and the adult flies from May

to July and from late July to September.

 

Yponomeuta evonymella Bird-cherry Ermine Local UK

 

This micromoth is one of the lesser ermine moths and this one feeds on Bird

Cherry and, presumably, on other Prunus species. The adults fly in summer and

the caterpillars feed and pupate gregariously in webs.

 

Zygaena filipendulae Six-spot Burnet Common

 

Typically found in dry grassy places such as woodland rides, downland,

disused quarries and sandpits, railway cuttings, sand dunes and flowery

meadows. Larvae on Lotus corniculatus, but also require tall grass stems on

which to pupate. Widespread and moderately common in England and Wales ,

coastal in Scotland .

 

Zygaena lonicerae Narrow-bordered Five-spot Burnet Common

 

Typically found in grassy places such as open woodland, commons, marshes,

downland, disused quarries and sandpits, railway cuttings, sand dunes and

flowery meadows. Larvae on a variety of vetches and trefoils, but also

require tall grass stems on which to pupate. Widespread and moderately common

in England , in Wales apparently restricted to the south-east.

 

Derek Whiteley

October 2011

 

 

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